Raoultella species were hard to distinguish from Klebsiella species. R. planticola was formerly named Klebsiella planticola, R. ornithinolytica was formerly known as ornithine-positive Klebsiella oxytoca or Klebsiella onrnithinolytica (pdf). Histamine production is indicative for Raoultella genus bacteria. Details on determination of Raoultella spp in this paper. The Raoultella genus consists of:
- R. planticola (indole V)
- R. ornithinolytica
- R. terrigena (indole -)
Raoultella appeared to be responsible for numerous cases of Histamine Fish Poisoning (HFP) or scombroid fish poisoning, incorrectly attributed to Klebsiella spp (article). Usually occurring after eating large amount of histamine formed in the muscle flesh of decayed scombroid fish. Other published pathology caused by Raoultella species are pancreatitis and bacteremia in humans and mastitis in dairy cows. Carbapenemase has been found in Raoultella spp in patients that had been treated with carbapenemases during their admission. These strains harbored blakpc-2 and blakpc-3, article here.
Raoultella spp show resistance to amino- and carboxy-penicillins similar or identical to Klebsiella spp. Clavulanate rescues the efficacy of these penicillins. Macrolides are ineffective, as are rifampicin, glycopeptides and fusidic acid. Raoultella spp were susceptible to cephalosporins, cotrimoxazole, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (Stock 2001). Treatment is probably feasible using updated protocols on treatment of enterobacteriaciae and gram-negative rods.
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